Europa quo vadis 2005?
Starting with a definition of transformation, the presentation takes a look at the recent developements in the European countries after the French and the Dutch rejected the European constitution. It tries to connect developements in France(the „October riots”), Germany(the 2005 election), Great Britain( the London Terror attacks, Tony Blair in trouble?) and their influence for the Foreign Politics especially towards the Middle European Region and its meaning for the power relations in the European Union.
1. Definition of "transformation"
Besides the fact that in many other fields of Science we find definitions for the term „transformation” the emphasis should be laid on relevant definitions concerning the field of Social and Political Sciences. By the Greek word „metamorphosis” is meant a change of form or structure into another without loosing substance. Especially in Social and Political Sciences we observe structural conversion, change or mutation. This includes changes like changes from centrally planned economy into free market economy (socalled „transformism”) or change from one form of society into another; further a conversion of a political system into another system, whereby is meant a basic change or exchange of the political regime sometimes also of the social and economic order. In Political Sciences especially changes from dictatures to democracies are analysed. Special attendance is given here to the socalled „countries of the third wave of democratization“ (Samuel Huntington), i.e. countries with sytemchange to democracy after 1974: the right dictatures of South Europe (Portugal, Greece, Spain), the capitalistic autocracies in Eastasia (Philippines, Taiwan, Southkorea, Thailand) or the former socialist coutries in Cental and Eastern Europae (Hungary, Poland, Russlia, Balkan, Baltic area, Ukraine).
Another usage of the word came up during the early 1990s, when “transformation” came to be associated with the massive plan to change national education systems. “Education transformation” was a term nuanced with esoteric meaning - referring not only to the comprehensive “economic, social and cultural health of the society,”2 but also, in global education circles, to education in “higher order thinking skills” to facilitate the collective evolution of consciousness.3 Interesting enough those education reform gurus were using the term in the same way that the New Age Theosophists were using it. Founder of the Theosophist movement was Helena P. Blavatsky, who heavyly influenced with her occult works the philosophy of UNESCO, worked out this term already in her book „the Secret Doctrine” more than hundert years ago.
New meanings for the word “transformation” entered the modern lexicon in the early 1980s. New Age author Marilyn Ferguson, who is credited with launching the “coming out party” for Luciferian Theosophists, extensively used the term. She defined it as “transformation of consciousness,” “a new seeing,” “conscious evolution,” and a “paradigm change.” Transformation was an essential part of the Teilhardian leap from “individual evolution” to “collective evolution.”4
Once - at the beginning of the 80's already prevailed a bad tendency in the institutions for the European Union, since the process of integration seems to have los at dynamics. Jacques Delors caused at that time a turn, by providing enthusiasm with his project of the common domestic market. We asked ourselves in June 2005: What will the politicians do this time?
This time the CFSP could fuel to the process of integration new dynamics: This goal was tried to achive already since 19985: By the establishment of a military staff and a security committee, the structure of of a good relationship to NATO and with the creation of the office of Solana, who lends the CFSP face and voice.
„EUROPA | EU Official Documents | European Commission | Secretariat-General |
General Report 1998 - Chapter V: Role of the Union in the world
Section 1: Common foreign and security policy (3/24)
666. In December the Vienna European Council expressed the opinion that the Secretary-General of the Council and High Representative for the CFSP should be appointed as soon as possible and be a personality with a strong political profile. It invited the Council to prepare common strategies on Russia, Ukraine, the Mediterranean region and the western Balkans, on the understanding that the first would be on Russia. Welcoming the new impetus given to the debate on a common European policy on security and defence, the European Council also noted that the CFSP should be backed by credible operational capabilities (1).
European Commission; Manuscript completed January 1999“6.
The Helsinki Headline Goal process provided further development of the capacities, both the military and the civilian, for effective crisis management.
In Paragraph 12 of „Document A/WEU REC 666 from 5 June 2000, Forty-sixth session (First Part) RECOMMENDATION 666: on the consequences of including certain functions of WEU in the European Union - reply to the annual report of the Council” we find:
„12 Support proposals for the WEU Secretary-General and CFSP High Representative to preside over the PSC and civilian crisis-management machinery and give him powers to convene the Council of the European Union in the event of an emergency”.
An in Paragraph 15:
„15 Assist the European Union in coordinating civilian and military crisis management using the CIMIC concept as a basis and inform the Assembly about this concept”7.
Not to remain unmentioned, in December 2003 the Council of the European Union adopted the European Securtity Strategy, the so-called „Solana paper“.
However the European Union acted even more activly: Examples:the police mission in Bosnia, the military takover of WEU -, today police operation in Macedonia and the first autonomously accomplished operation in the Congo. On the Balkans and also in Iran the European Union was noticed as a participant with regard to foreign policy, which was confirmed by Solanas membership in the Middle East quartet.
3. Germany 2005
The German election had its consequenses for the inner and outer European Politics:
On 1st of July: Schröder asked the German Parliament, if they trust him anymore and the Parliament voted against him. So Schröder asked for dissolvation of the parliament, which was allowed by the German president Horst Köhler on 21.of July, together with his demand for new elections.
Already one week later, at 7th of July High Representive for EU Foreign Affairs and WEU General Secretary and General Secratry of the Council of the European Union Javier Solana meets Angela Merkel, candidate of the opposition party CDU, in Berlin. Both Angela Merkel (CDU) and Gerhard Schröder (SPD) claimed victory and the Chancellorship as the exit polls came in. As it became clear that neither could form a majority government within the existing coalitions, both said that they would negotiate with all parties that had won seats except the Left Party, whilst the leaders of the Left Party rejected any possibility of participating in a coalition with either of the two main parties. Finally the Merkel-led grand coalition government took office at the end of November after the parliament elected Merkel chancellor.
Merkel nominated Christoph Heusgen, who served as chief-of-staff for EU top diplomat Javier Solana from 1999 to 2005, as Merkel's chancellery Foreign Affairs adviser. This change is meant to bring also a change into the international role of Germany, as Dr. Heusgen already mentioned: "It is a fact that we have a value-bound Foreign Policy."8
What does that mean? In Heusgens own words: "All these are trouble spots," Heusgen said at the time. "One way or another, the EU has to play a role, get member states to work together to try and anticipate and avoid conflicts."9 Heusgen is a fervent advocate for a strong Europe. As head of the unit charged with analyzing crisis situations and possible responses, he's become also a strong proponent of EU-wide military cooperation. "We need to be able to, when it is necessary, involve ourselves militarily,"10
Concerning the Politics towards the East we can await a change. Before the Russian-German relation was dominated by the friendship between Schroeder and Putin and so somewhat very emotional, also in its results. In the already cited „Zeit-interview” it says:
„...In handling Russia for example. There he felt in Brussels bitterly, how much the friendship between Putin and Schroeder makes unsure the Eastern Europeans. "I am for the revival of the Weimar triangle", says Heusgen, thinks thus of a new partnership with France and Poland. He wants to merge stronger with Warsaw, call more frequently the Baltics and if the shedule allows it, to send also the woman Chancellor once. Small gestures with signal effect. "Germany can reach so much, if it binds the others more in, says Heusgen and dreams even about an axle Merkel - Zapatero. Already Kohl had once maintained best relations with the Spanish socialist González.” And again in the also already cited article from the International Tribune it says: „His mettle will be tested as Germany prepares to take over the EU presidency in 2007. Already, there are suggestions that Berlin will make a major effort to relaunch the constitution. His other big challenge is to prevent Europe from tearing itself apart, as it nearly did before the U.S.-led war against Iraq, when Britain and several East European countries supported Washington while Germany, France and Russia led the opposition.Heusgen has already said he wants no return to the French-German-Russian coalition that upset many EU member states because they believed Germany was turning its back on political integration and failing to protect them against the bigger member states.Then there is the Warsaw Triangle, a forum where France, Germany and Poland have held regular consultations but with few results and which Heusgen wants to give real substance. That could be tricky.”11
Concerning the wishes of the Turkey of becoming a member of the EU Merkel had insisted on a "privileged partnership" suggestion for Turkey during her election campaign, unlike former German Chancellor Gerhard Schroeder, who was a strong supporter of Turkey's full membership in the Union12. But not so any longer: „German leader Angela Merkel has sought to reassure her Turkish counterpart that she will not stand in the way of Ankara's membership talks with the EU...Germany's new chancellor, Angela Merkel, has said that "things will develop well" with Turkey, and has acknowledged Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan's statement that Berlin and Ankara "will walk hand in hand as always". Merkel met with Erdogan during the Euro-Mediterranean summit in Barcelona on 27 November and she reassured the Turkish leader that "'pacta sunt servanda [agreements must be respected] applies and that things will develop well"13.
By the way, Erdogan is about - together with Spanish Premier Zapatero - to push for a socalled „Alliance of Civilizations”. This initiative was launched by Erdogan and Zapatero under the auspices of UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan. Erdogan went to Barcelona to represent Turkey in the Euromed Summit where the fight against terrorism, economic reform, methods to produce concrete regional commitments on human rights, good governance, democracy and transparency and education will top the agenda.“
And Merkel sounded loud on her first official trip as Chancellor to London to the other EU member countries: „Stop squabbling and work together!“...“She announced that Germany and Britain would resume annual policy meetings of the two governments, bringing together all the ministers of both sides to co-ordinate decisions more closely. It could all add up to a quiet revolution. In her first two days Mrs Merkel had added a lot to the European mix: Atlanticism, economic realism, a call for tolerance instead of the blame game, and a special concern for the new member states of former Eastern Europe. She is to visit Poland on 2 December14.
4. Great Britain 2005
On first of August 2005 Great Britain was due to take over the Presidency of the Council of the EU. But before, London suffered a big trauma: The explosions of some bombs in the public traffic system on July 07.
At July 08.2005, just one day(sic) after London terror attacks the German Parliament approved an electronic passport plan to begin Nov. 1, with Lufthansa Airlines and Siemens AG of Munich initiating a test in which passengers’ thumbprints will be used to verify identity before boarding a plane to tighten securitry15.
At 07.09.2005, two days(sic) after the London terror attacks, the EU published the following information on how it was to improve anti-terror measures: "...The European Commission said it will speed up efforts to create an EU-wide intelligence network and improve its emergency plans in the wake of Thursday's bombing attacks on London's transport system. The European Union is to speed up work on a rapid response program to coordinate pan-European reactions to large-scale terror attacks, such as the series of coordinated bombings that hit London on Thursday, EU Justice and Security Commissioner Franco Frattini said... Next week, on July 13, the (European) Commission will discuss further measures in the fight against terrorism, in particular a proposal for a terrorism-related rapid response mechanism," Frattini said..."16.
But there was more to come: Four months later Brithish Premier Tony Blair tried to get a vote for his own security package in Great Britain’s parliament. For the public the result was sold as a desasterous loss for Blair: "NEWS BRIEF: British Anti-Terror Legislation Defeat Raises Questions Over Blair's Political Future, London(AP) - The House of Commons' vote to quash Tony Blair's anti-terror legislation dealt the prime minister his first-ever defeat - an embarrassing setback that raises doubts about his political future. Blair had staked his authority on the plan to detain terror suspects for 90 days without charge and doggedly refused to compromise. But some 49 of his own lawmakers, including 11 former ministers, joined forces with opposition parties to defeat the measure Wednesday ... Now that rebels have inflicted their first defeat, some question how long he will survive as prime minister."17
...However, Blair really got all he wanted anyway: The English „Insider” writes: „The British regime achieved a major victory in parliament yesterday, successfully passing a new anti-terror bill containing an extensive package of new and increased powers for the authorities and new and increased restrictions on the public. Unfortunately, few ordinary people in the UK are aware of the changes approved yesterday by their elected representatives, because to date they have been barely mentioned in the mass media ... In an impressive exercise of mass deception, the mass media in the UK are universally portraying this as a historic 'defeat', and indeed, this is the top story in every mass media news outlet in the country today, on TV, on the radio and in the press, without exception. So powerful is the message from the mass media that even alternative outlets for news and commentary, most notably the independent blogs and web sites, have seized on the news as a story about the 'defeat' of new anti-terror laws. We are unable to find a single example, apart from the article that you are now reading, that highlights government's success in passing a major new anti-terror new bill with virtually no amendments. If this is how we define 'defeat' or failure, surely success would require a dictatorship. In reality, the 'defeat' described by the mass media is nothing more than a slight change to one part of one point in the long list of proposals advanced by the government -- namely the infamous '90 days' proposal, which was reduced to a month instead of six months. This proposal would literally give policemen the power to sentence people to six-months in prison without evidence, without a trial or an opportunity to defend against the charge, in fact without even charging the prisoner with any crime."17
The rest of this article details how the major mass media in Great Britain successfully turned a practical, strategic victory for the Prime Minister into a Public Relations "terrible defeat" which could threaten his longevity in office. Thus, the average person in Great Britain who was concerned that his rights and liberties were threatened by this "Patriot Act" type of laws can go back to sleep -- falsely assured that Blair's proposals for a dictatorship were decisively "defeated".
The power of propaganda...
Finally on 2005, Dec. 1, European Union Justice ministers have adopted a new counter-terrorism strategy that includes potential terror recruitment concerns. The ministers, meeting in Brussels, backed a British proposal set forth after the July London bombings. De Vries said the objective of the strategy was to prevent terrorist attacks, especially in protecting delicate infrastructure such as transport systems, the EU Observer reported, and suggested a special body in every member state be established to deal only with counter-terrorism.18
5. France 2005
In June 2005 the French and short after the Dutch population voted against the EU constitution. European Politicians did not get tired to assure that this was not an expression against the constitution, they would regard it more like a general unhappiness of the voters with the national rules of France and Netherlands. Then came a hot summer.
The 2005 civil unrests in France and neighboring countries was a series of riots and other forms of violent clashes between thousands of youths (predominantly of French Muslim background) from poor suburbs and the French Police (as well as the police of neighboring countries).
The riots began on Thursday 27 October 2005 in the banlieues of Paris. They peaked on the night of 7 November, affecting 274 communes. On 17 November, the French police declared a return to a normal situation throughout France, saying that the 98 vehicles torched the previous night corresponded to the usual average. According to the official count, 8,973 vehicles were torched during the 20 nights of rioting, with 2,888 arrests, and 126 police injured. The riots were triggered by the deaths of two teenagers in Clichy-sous-Bois, next to: Aulnay-sous-Bois, a poor commune in an eastern banlieue (suburb) of Paris. Initially confined to the Paris area, the unrest subsequently spread to other areas of the Île-de-France région, and spread through the outskirts of France's urban areas, also affecting some rural areas.
After 3 November it spread to other cities in France, affecting all 15 of the large aires urbaines in the country. Thousands of vehicles were burned, and at least one person was killed by the rioters. Close to 2900 rioters were arrested.19 Interior Minister Nicolas Sarkozy after the fourth night of riots declared a zero tolerance policy towards urban violence and announced that seventeen companies of riot police (C.R.S.) and seven mobile police squadrons (escadrons de gendarmerie mobile) would be stationed in contentious Paris neighborhoods.
On 8 November, President Jacques Chirac declared a state of emergency effective at midnight. Despite the new regulations, riots continued, though on a reduced scale, the following two nights, and again worsened the third night. On 9 November and the morning of 10 November a school was burned in Belfort, and there was violence in Toulouse, Lille, Strasbourg, Marseille, and Lyon. The state of emergency gives authorities the power to regulate or forbid circulation and gathering in some areas, as well as the right to close places of gathering. It may also give the military authority the power to act in place of civilian authorities, if a decree specifies it explicitly. It is unclear though how some of the legal possibilities can be implemented currently, because of various legal changes since the 1950s. Since 1955, three other states of emergency have been decreed in France: in 1955 in Algeria due to independentist unrest, in 1958 due to the uprising in Algeria and in 1984 in New Caledonia due to independentist troubles.
Author Tracy R. Twyman writes: „...there was another organization operating under the umbrella of the Priory of Sion known as “Alpha Galates”, lead by M. Pierre Plantard, a direct descendant of Dagobert II, who would one day become the "Grand Master of the Priory of Sion" itself. Alpha Galates was largely concerned with politics, both of France and of Europe in general. They also published a strange little magazine called Vaincre (Victory). One of their goals was: The creation of a ’new western order’, a ‘young European chivalry’ whose keynote was to be ‘Solidarity.’ Within each European nation, this organization, known as ‘Solidarity’, was to represent ‘the first stage of the United States of the West.’”20.
Now we have the French emergency legislation dating from 1955 as a reaction to the Paris riots.
Concerning the 1958 situation I found a part in the 1989 softcover bookedition from 1989 of "The Messianic Legacy" by Baigent, Leigh, Lincoln(who more famous for the book Holy Blood, Holy Grail, which highly influenced "the daVinci-code"),: On the „Comités de Salut public (Committees of Public Safety)”:
"...Thus, the Committees in Algeria began to press insistently for De Gaulle to assume power in France, if necessary by means of a military coup. They received support from a number of high-ranking military men, including Marshal Alphonse Juin, who is alleged to have been an important member of the Prieuré de Sion. They also received support from a coalescing pro-Gaullist movement in France, the Social Republican Party, whose leaders included Michel Debré- who became De Gaulle's Minister of Justice and, shortly after, between 1959 and 1962, Prime Minister of France. Another important pro-Gaullist figure was Georges Bidault, a former Resistance hero. Between 1945 and 1954, Bidault had worked closely with Robert Schuman-Professor Louis Le Fur's old friend-in drawing up the blueprints for the EEC...
By (1958) 23 May, reports had begun to surface of Committees of Public Safety already being established in mainland France. On 24 May, a Committee assumed power in Corsica, while Algerian broadcasters urged France and her people to `choose between the star of Moscow and the Cross of Lorraine"...”On 29 May, every Committee of Public Safety in Paris was mobilised and thousands of supporters poured on to the streets....“21
”When we first met M.Plantard in 1979, he told us that Charles de Gaulle had personally requested him to direct the French Committees of Public Safety "and, when their task of installing the General in power had been completed, "to preside over" their dissolution"
"...Under the authority of Marshal Alphonse Juin, the seat of the Secretariat-General of the Committees of Public Safety in metropolitan France was at Aulnay-sous-Bois [author: Paris suburb so close nearby where the riots 2005 started(sic!)]. This Committee was directed by Michel Debré, Pierre Plantard known as Way, and André Malraux.' "22
And just compare with the already mentioned Paragraph 12 from the WEU document: REC 666:
”12 Support proposals for the "WEU Secretary-General and CFSP High Representative to preside over the PSC and civilian crisis-management machinery" and give him powers to convene the Council of the European Union in the event of an emergency;".
This civil unrest created a pretext for the implementation of authoritarian measures and considerable restrictions on personal liberties. The French riots painted a French president without power: „Wounded Chirac ‘losing grip’ of riot-hit France. France yesterday ordered a ban on public meetings likely to provoke disturbances as thousands of police were deployed on the streets of Paris to stop youths turning the tourist centre into a battlefield. The initiative came as speculation mounted over a severely discredited Jacques Chirac’s ability to endure the last 17 months of his presidential term...He has said virtually nothing about it, heightening perceptions of him as a politically irrelevant figure....The 72-year-old head of state has been off balance ever since voters defied him by rejecting the European Union constitution in May.:scared Even his lieutenants in the centre-right governing team seemed to be putting the boot in. “Chirac looks stunned, almost overtaken by events,” Jean-Louis Debré, president of the national assembly, was quoted as saying”.23
„Upon closer examination, the dialectic of race merely camouflages a broader Hegelian manipulation. Marginalized and deprived of any substantial political capital, many ethnic and racial groups are predisposed to exploitation by socialist revolutionary movements. Race war invariably becomes class war and class war invariably results in some form of dictatorship. Whether the resulting dictatorship ostensibly belongs to the proletariat or bourgeoisie, absolute primacy is always held by a hidden oligarchy.“24
The dialectic of race merely disguises a larger Hegelian dialectic: communism against fascism. Ayn Rand probably provides the most eloquent summation of this dialectic: „It is obvious what the fraudulent issue of fascism versus communism accomplishes: it sets up, as opposites, two variants of the same political system... it switches the choice of "Freedom or dictatorship?" into "Which kind of dictatorship?"--thus establishing dictatorship as an inevitable fact and offering only a choice of rulers. The choice--according to the proponents of the fraud - is: a dictatorship of the rich (fascism) or a dictatorship of the poor (communism). “25
6. Results and Consequences
Now after the French and Dutch voters have rejected the EU's new Constitution, the EU heads seem facing a crisis. To govern the expanded EU and continue being a global player, the EU leaders feel they really need their new Constitution in force. Not to forget, the Constitution sets a headline goal of 2010 for all Solana's civilian and military peace-keeping/peace-making capabilities to be deployable. These broad-ranging assets include 13 battle groups, heavy lift aircraft, aircraft carrier, satellite communications and much more. Now without constitution all this is threatened. Or, not?
When we taka a look at the WEU document called "The way ahead for the European Security and Defence Policy and its democratic scrutiny – reply to the annual report of the Council by the assembly of the WEU” (Document C/1915, November 8, 2005), it turns out that all of the elements of the new EU Constitution that have to do with the EU's Foreign and Security Policy goals -- including their new, super Foreign Minister and his global diplomatic service -- can be legally done within the framework of the WEU. In other words, as long as the WEU is around, the EU does not need their new Constitution to reach their goals.
High Representative Javier Solana says: „In the past 10 years, there is much that we have achieved. We are working together across the full spectrum of government responsibilities: economy, security, governance and more.“26
Internationalists don't talk so much anymore about creating a world government. They talk about a thing called "world governance." The idea is, instead of establishing a global federalization of some kind, they want to link existing governments, along with all the private sectors, into a new global structure. In other words, they want to talk everybody into going along with their global agenda willingly. Terminated through its international engagement. So does the European identity of the the European nations. European nations become more and more depending from Brussels. European coutries concentrate more intergration. Europe orientates itself shifts more and more towards „security“ and combines more and more civil and military units, added by subtile but intensive pressure which is put onto resisting nations. this phenomen is not just typical for Central Europa, it can be said on a global scale.
My thesis is: the transformation is a directed endevaour. This “transformation” is to be accomplished by a “mission” strategy of doing “whatever it takes” to launch political, social, and cultural reforms on a global scale. A philosophy of “the end justifies the means” has been embraced to accomplish these colossal goals. Extremely sophisticated psycho-social marketing techniques are employed to facilitate this “transformation.” State-of-the-art statistical measurement and assessment methods evaluate this “transformation,” judging “effectiveness” by pre-set criteria. National governments sign multilateral treaties which surrender their political and legal souvereignity. National governments adopt more policies of „regionalism“ and „multiculturalism“, and other policies which will eventually eleminate national borders, culture, and identity and create global citizens. National governments will wind back their natinal armed forces to levels sufficient only to subdue their own people and participate in „global peac-keeping“ activities as requiered by EU and UN. Nations are corporate persons in a „postmodern surrounding” and to be transformed through „discipling“.27 Or to say it with Solanas words: “A secure Europe in a better world“.
As shown “transformation” is substantial and deep, intent on re-forging the very foundations of, western civilization, and ultimately the governance of the entire earth. While lip service is being paid to the traditional definitions you read about above, in reality the word “transformation” now indicates a societal, cultural and global revolution.
Baigent Michael, Leigh Richard, Lincoln Henry (1989): The Messianic Legacy, London, Dell.
Cooper Robert (2003): „The Breaking of the Nations”, London, Atlantic Books.
Rand, Ayn (1967): Capitalism: The Unknown Ideal. New York: Signet Books.
Merkel, Wolfgang (1999): Systemtransformation. Eine Einführung in die Theorie und Empirie der Transformationsforschung,Opladen.
Sandschneider, Eberhard (1995): Stabilität und Transformation politischer Systeme. Stand und Perspektiven politikwissenschaftlicher Transformationsforschung. Opladen.
2 In: “Transforming American Education: Reducing the Risk to the Nation,” cited in the deliberate dumbing down of america by Charlotte Iserbyt (Conscience Press: Ravenna, Ohio, 1999), p. 233-4.
3 For a thorough discussion of this point, see Kjos, Berit. Brave New Schools (Harvest House Publishers: Eugene, Oregon, 1995).
4 Ferguson, Marilyn (1980). The Aquarian Conspiracy: Personal and Social Transformation in the 1980s (J.P Tarcher, Inc.: Los Angeles), p. 68-72. Note the numerous references to “transformation” in the index.
5 These thoughts where already mentioned in “GASP quo vadis?", speech by Dr. Christoph Heusgen, Dir. of strategy planning in the cabinett of General Secretary of the EU, Javier Solana. 2004, 01,19. held in the „Europabüro“ of the Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung, Avenue de L´Yser 11, 1040 Brüssel
8 In: „Merkels Welt-Erklärer” von Petra Pinzler in „die Zeit”, Ausgabe 2005,47, http://www.zeit.de/2005/47/Heusgen, translated by me.
9 Judy Dempsey: „A staunch European guides Merkel policy” In: „International Herald Tribune, MONDAY, NOVEMBER 21, 2005, http://www.iht.com/articles/2005/11/21/news/berlin.php
10 dw-world, deutsche welle.de: „Merkel's Foreign Policy Man is a Brussels Fan”, 19.22.2005, http://www.dw-world.de/dw/article/0,2144,1782904,00.html
11 Judy Dempsey: „A staunch European guides Merkel policy” In: „International Herald Tribune, MONDAY, NOVEMBER 21, 2005, http://www.iht.com/articles/2005/11/21/news/berlin.php
12 The New Anatolian and JTW, 27 Nov. 2005, http://www.turkishweekly.net/news.php?id=22471
13 „Merkel: Berlin won't stand in way of Turkey's EU bid” in: http://www.euractiv.com/Article?tcmuri=tcm:29-150009-16&type=News
17 AP Breaking News, November 10, 2005
18 source: United Press International.
20 Twyman, Tracy R.: „Pax Europa:The United States of Europe and the Merovingian Master Plan”, http://www.dragonkeypress.com/articles/article_2004_10_26_3541.html
21 Baigent Michael, Leigh Richard, Lincoln Henry (1989): The Messianic Legacy., softcoveredition Dell, pp.330-331.
23 The Sunday Times November 13, 2005, http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,2089-1869874,00.html
24 from: Paul and Phillip Collins: „The Ruling Class-Sponsored Race War and the Balkanization of America „,
25 Rand, Ayn. Capitalism: The Unknown Ideal. New York: Signet Books, 1967.
26 Solana, Javier: Toward a partnership of hope, 25.11.2005.
27 Compare here with the imperalistic theses of Solana Adviser Robert Cooper in: „The Breaking of the Nations”, London, Atlantic Books, 2003.